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IEB

IEB Report 1/2024: Drought: Scarcity and Management of Available Water

Drought is an extended period of time in which a territory experiences a shortfall in the water supply. The main cause is usually an ongoing shortage of precipitation (meteorological drought), which can eventually lead to insufficient water resources (hydrological drought) to meet the existing demand. The “volume stored in surface reservoirs” or “river inputs at gauging stations” are two of the most explicit indicators reflecting the hydrological status through the various control points set up throughout the territory.

IEB Report 4/2023: Education Policy: Quality and Equality of Opportunity

Market economies inevitably come with economic inequality. However, economic inequality today depends not only on the current generation, but on pre-existing economic inequality inherited from earlier ones. Inequality persists across generations, and this is a challenge for society for several reasons. First, because of fairness: what family we are born into is a lottery; our starting conditions, which condition our life outcomes, are thus beyond our control. Second, because of efficiency: adverse conditions early on can prevent individuals from contributing to society according to their potential and from attaining high levels of well-being. Hence, a crucial question is how to reward the merits of the current generation, which results in greater societal welfare, without allowing them to condition the development of subsequent ones.

IEB Report 3/2023: Energy Poverty

According to the European Green Deal, achieving a decarbonized, prosperous, fair and inclusive European economy by 2050 requires urgently tackling a complex equation encompassing not only economic and environmental challenges, but also social aspects. This entails a strong commitment to ensuring access to clean, affordable and safe energy for all Europeans. Yet millions of European households cannot afford essential energy services needed to guarantee a healthy standard of living. In fact, in 2022, 9.3% of the European population reported being unable to keep their homes adequately warm, a 35% increase from the year before. A series of measures must thus be taken to reverse this situation.

IEB Report 2/2023: Mobility and Personal Taxes

Mobility, i.e., the ability of taxpayers to relocate for tax purposes (Slemrod, 2010), is a challenge for current tax systems. It concerns both the real or artificial mobility of (the profits of) companies, in part facilitated by digitization, and the mobility of the labor factor. While IEB Report 3/2021 dealt with the first type of mobility, this one deals with the second. To this end, it includes three complementary contributions, especially in terms of the geographical scope of each one.

IEB Report 1/2023: Soccer & Economics

If you read sports newspapers and commentary, you could be forgiven for believing that major sporting events are always a great idea for the organising city and country, that it is obviously necessary to fire the manager when a team is underperforming, or that the team that shoots first in a penalty shoot-out has it made.

IEB Report 4/2022: Carbon Taxation

The burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas emits gases into the atmosphere that act like the glass roof of a greenhouse, trapping the sun’s heat and preventing it from escaping into space, thereby increasing the temperature of the planet. This warming of the Earth is causing the climate to change in ways that constitute a serious threat, due to the negative natural, social and territorial consequences that it may generate.