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IEB Report 4/2021: Fiscal Sustainability in the Post-COVID-19 Era

The shock of COVID-19 and the subsequent response has underscored the importance of the public sector’s role as a backstop. There is no doubt about that. The alternative to public-sector intervention would have been an unprecedented economic collapse. Indeed, unprecedented is more than a rhetorical expression: even with public intervention, Spain’s real GDP fell by nearly 11%. In other words, the initial economic growth forecasts for 2020 ended up being off by nearly 13 percentage points. This will have consequences, obviously, for the level of public debt and, potentially, for the sustainability of our public finances. In this respect, Spain’s situation is not very different from that of other developed countries.

IEB Report 3/2021: The Impact of Digitalisation on Tax Systems

For nearly a century, international taxation has been based on principles established within the framework of the League of Nations in the 1920s. The existence of sovereign tax systems in an incipient framework of cross-border economic transactions led at that time to the establishment of principles that would guarantee a certain degree of justice in international taxation by preventing both double taxation of the same profits in more than one state and the failure to tax profits in any state. The idea was to establish criteria or connecting factors—residence and territory—on the basis of which it would be decided which country, or countries, had the right to tax profits.

IEB Report 2/2021: University Reform

In developed countries, the importance of university systems for their respective societies is far greater than their
specific weight. The contribution they make, in terms of training human capital, research and knowledge transfer,
is a decisive force for the development of the knowledge society in said countries – and Spain is no exception.

IEB Report 1/2021: COVID-19, Working from Home and the Future of Cities

Cities are a human invention that facilitate interaction between people. Urban life makes us more productive, because it enables us to learn things from each other and specialise in more specific tasks. More recently, cities have also become places where people want to live, so that they may enjoy a wider range of experiences and services, in the fields of culture and gastronomy, to cite just two examples. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has removed these advantages that were part and parcel of urban life, albeit on a temporary and partial basis.

IEB Report 3/2020: Legalization of Undocumented Immigrants: What Do We Know?

The Barcelona Institute of Economics (IEB) presents the IEB Report 3/20 entitled “Legalization of undocumented immigrants: what do we know?” which draws on academic papers to systematize empirical evidence on the socioeconomic impacts of immigrant amnesties on the host economies.

IEB Report 4/2020: Poverty in Spain and Europe. Effects of COVID-19

Unfortunately, we can find pockets of poverty, inequality and social exclusion even in the midst of the most developed countries; those that have the most consolidated level of wellbeing. This IEB Report analyses the current situation of poverty in Spain and Europe. Although the differences between countries are notable, poverty is a plague that affects all of them.

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